The renowned Christian author and pastor formerly hosted seminars at the event in Washington DC but pulled out, claiming it had become to "politicised".
Campolo, who was once a spiritual advisor to former US President Bill Clinton, also criticised what he perceived to be a leader who encourages Americans to look inwards.
The 83-year-old continued: "His big thing is 'America first'. You cannot say that if you're a red letter Christian.
"'Seek thee the Kingdom of God', Jesus says, 'Don't worry about this, you're the citizen of a new society'".
Campolo spoke to Premier as he marked the UK launch of Red Letter Christian - a movement which places a strong emphasis on the words of Christ in scripture.
Describing how the Christian viewpoint supersedes nationalism, he continued: "It transcends the interests of your own nation.
"We need to have a worldview - rather than a nationalistic view - of reality."
Usually held on the first Thursday in February, the National Prayer Breakfast dates back to the 1950s.
Click here to listen to Premier's Craig Wakling speaking with Tony Campolo:
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