Dr Ronny Jackson, who performed the check-up, issued a blanket declaration on Tuesday that the president was in "excellent health" despite his unhealthy habits.
He reported that the 6ft 3in president weighed in at 239lb, three pounds heavier than he was in September 2016, and advised he shed ten to 15lb over the next year.
But Dr Jackson said he has "absolutely no concerns" about his cognitive abilities, cholesterol and cardiac health, among other things.
One reporter raised concern about the president's diet and said: "Tell me how a guy who eats McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and all those diet Cokes and never exercises is in as good a shape as you say he's in."
How can Trump, who loves KFC and never exercises, be in such good health? "I don't know. He has incredible genes," doctor says. https://t.co/RgX60N4CHG— Meg Wagner (@megwagner) January 16, 2018
Dr Jackson replied: "It's called genetics. I don't know.
"Some people have just great genes. I told the president that if he had a healthier diet over the last 20 years, he might live to be 200 years old."
He added: "If I didn't watch what I ate I wouldn't have the... overall health that he has.
"So he's very healthy despite those things. I don't think he does that anymore.
"He has incredibly good genes; it's just the way God made him."
Dr Jackson said he prescribed a diet lower in fat and carbohydrates, and exercise.
Mr Trump passed a series of heart exams including a stress test that Dr Jackson said showed an above-average exercise capacity for a man of his age, despite some calcium build up in his arteries.
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