Members of the English-speaking group al-Abd al-Faqir group released several images threatening violence against the Catholic leader.
One depicted a gunman - wearing a pro-IS wristband - pointing their weapon at the 81 year old pontiff.
A caption under the picture read: "Don't think you are away from our attacks".
The image has been verified by the SITE Intelligence Group, an organisation which monitors the online activity of extremists around the world.
Its publication comes days after the emergence of other al-Abd al-Faqir images threatening grenade attacks against Pope Francis.
Al-Abd al-Faqir is among a number of extremist media groups publishing threats in support of IS. A series of threats have specifically targeted the pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
In October 2014, publishers of the extremist Dabiq magazine published propaganda which showed the IS flag flying above St Peter's Square in Vatican City.
Last year, IS-linked extremists in The Philippines filmed themselves desecrating a church in the southern city of Marawi and threatening to come to Rome.
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