The photo was taken on Monday and tweeted on Wednesday by Johnnie Moore, a former senior Vice President at Liberty University, a large evangelical university in Virginia.
Moore called it an honour to pray in the Oval Office and told CNN the faith leaders similarly prayed for President Barack Obama.
However, he said "the context of a real relationship" and "true friendship" with Trump made Monday's experience different.
Moore said the prayer, which also included US Vice President Mike Pence happened after an all-day meeting with evangelical leaders and the White House Office of Public Liaison.
Despite the new revelation of the president's eldest son meeting with a Russian lawyer to get dirt on Hilary Clinton, which Trump said he didn't know about at the time, Moore said Trump was in "good spirits".
He told CNN: "He was as strong and focused as I have ever seen him. It was as if he was entirely above the fray."
According to Pew Research, President Trump won 81 per cent of white evangelical voters in the 2016 election.
He told attendees at last month's Faith & Freedom Coalition conference in Washington: "You didn't let me down and I will never, ever let you down, you know that."