The John Templeton Foundation has awarded the Scottish university £2.3m.
The money will also go into an open online resource and two scholarships for undergraduates to come to St Andrews based on an essay competition.
Dr John Perry, Senior Lecturer in Christian Ethics at St Andrews, said: "With this project, the University of St Andrews is pioneering a wave of interdisciplinary research and teaching.
"Rather than generalising about science and religion as abstract concepts, science-engaged theology draws specific sub-disciplines and theories together to solve concrete problems.
"In 'Science-Engaged Theology: New Visions in Theological Anthropology' we will be funding the creation of new research projects, course syllabi, funding student scholarships, and creating a new online platform that incorporates current knowledge from the behavioural sciences into religious visions of what it means to be human.
"We believe that this grant will facilitate long-lasting change that allows for greater collaboration between scientists and theologians for many years to come."
The Templeton Foundation often provides funding to projects which look to advance understanding of faith.
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