The Church of Scotland has set a target to have net zero carbon emissions by 2030.
This means aiming to balance out the amount of carbon dioxide the Church is producing by offsetting it by other means.
The decision has been welcomed by Christian environmental and development charities Christian Aid, Eco-Congregation Scotland and Operation Noah.
The Church's Faith Impact Forum brought a proposal to the General Assembly for it to transition "both locally and nationally to net zero carbon emissions by 2030."
They also voted to support an amendment from Rev Jenny Adams, minister of Duffus, Spynie and Hopeman Parish Church requiring an outline of their strategy at the General Assembly 2021, the same year that Glasgow is due to host the UN COP26 conference on climate change.
Rev Jenny Adams said: "This is a climate emergency and the next ten years are crucial. I hope that by working with others within and beyond the Church, we will be able to get going on this difficult but vital transition, for the sake of all creation."
Christian Aid, Eco-Congregation Scotland and Operation Noah applauded the decision. They said that the Church of Scotland now needs to end its investments in fossil fuel companies in order to demonstrate climate leadership ahead of the COP26 summit.
Sally Foster-Fulton, head of Christian Aid Scotland, said: "The communities with which Christian Aid works, in many of the poorest parts of the world, are calling for urgent leadership on climate change, and this decision from the Church of Scotland demonstrates that leadership. We welcome it warmly, and look forward to working in partnership with the Church of Scotland to help realise these ambitious new goals. One of the steps that the Church could take in the short-term is to commit to end its investments in fossil fuel companies, and we hope that is part of the plans brought forward in 2021."
James Buchanan, Bright Now Campaign Manager at Operation Noah, agreed: "In order to demonstrate leadership on the climate crisis ahead of the UN climate talks in Glasgow next year, it is vital that the Church of Scotland supports a just and green recovery from Covid-19 by divesting from fossil fuel companies and investing in the clean technologies of the future."