The criminals graffitied Dormition Abbey with the words "Christians go to Hell", "Death to the heathen Christians the enemies of Israel" and "The revenge of the people of Israel is yet to come".
Dormition Abbey has been vandalised before in 2012 and 2013, and in 2014 a demonstrator set fire to one of the abbey's prayer books after Pope Francis celebrated a Mass there.
The abbey is believed to be on the site where Jesus' mother Mary died. It is also close to the place believed to be where Jesus celebrated the Last Supper with his disciples.
Speaking through his official spokesman on minority affairs, Israel's Prime Miniser Benjamin Netanyahu denounced the vandalism in a series of tweets:
PM Netanyahu condemned the spraying of anti-Christian slogans on the walls of the Dormition Abbey: police is searching for those responsible— Ofir Gendelman (@ofirgendelman) January 17, 2016
PM: Christians and other faiths have freedom of worship in Israel which is the only place in the ME where the Christian community is growing— Ofir Gendelman (@ofirgendelman) January 17, 2016