According to Lambeth Palace, Justin Welby was joined by thousands of Christians around the world, including those in the UK, USA, South Sudan, Pakistan, Nigeria, Australia, the Seychelles and Japan.
Along with Revd Chris Russell, his adviser on evangelism and witness, he discussed John 1:35-42 where the disciples have their first encounter with Jesus.
He then took questions from viewers.
At the end of the broadcast, Archbishop Justin encouraged people to read the Bible with their Christian friends and relatives.
He said: "You can spend ten minutes finding how each other is, ten minutes looking at a passage of the Bible - asking very simply 'What does it say? What does it mean? What are we going to do about it?' - and ten minutes praying together. It's a really good way of spending time together."
It's not the first time the Archbishop has used Facebook for connecting with Christians.
He recently broadcast an Ash Wednesday service and just last week a meeting with Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari was live streamed.
Posting a message on Facebook at the conclusion of the study, the Archbishop suggested this wouldn't be the last study.
He said: "Thank you so much for joining us! It was a huge privilege to read the Bible with you in so many countries around the world. Let's do it again soon."
Justin Welby has 114,000 followers on the social media site.
Watch the Bible study here.