The Gaia exhibition opened Monday, with a giant globe installed in the cathedral.
The work is by Luke Jerram, the artist behind Museum of the Moon, which was installed at the Cathedral last year.
The seven metre diameter globe has been created using NASA imagery.
Jerram said: "I hope visitors to Gaia get to see the Earth as if from space; an incredibly beautiful and precious place. An ecosystem we urgently need to look after - our only home.
"Halfway through the Earth's six mass extinction, we urgently need to wake up, and change our behaviour. We need to quickly make the changes necessary, to prevent run away Climate Change."
Dean of Peterborough, the Very Rev Chris Dalliston added: "I'd like to invite anyone who comes to see it, to spend time reflecting on the beauty of the Earth and the wonderfully rich, but fragile, planet we inhabit."
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