Theresa May, who's a Christian, called on people to do more to advocate for freedom of religion in places where believers are targeted.
Her message echoes that of American President Donald Trump, who used his Easter message to call for more religious freedom and highlight the suffering of the Egyptian Church, where 45 people - most of them Christians - were murdered by two suicide bombers at separate churches on Palm Sunday.
The Prime Minister also used her Easter message to say that "there is a sense that people are coming together and uniting behind" the fact Brexit is happening.
She said: "We should be confident about the role that Christianity has to play in the lives of people in our country.
"We must continue to ensure that people feel able to speak about their faith, and that absolutely includes their faith in Christ.
"We must be mindful of Christians and religious minorities around the world who do not enjoy these same freedoms, but who practise their religion in secret and often in fear.
"And we must do more to stand up for the freedom of people of all religions to practice their beliefs openly and in peace and safety."
Meanwhile Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn called for people to be inspired by Christian principles in his Easter message.
He said: "I meet Christians, and others of all faiths and none on a daily basis, who share and live those ideals: people who give their time for others, to run food banks, protect the vulnerable, look after the sick, the elderly and our young people.
"That spirit of respect for each other, peace and equality is one we can all share. So to all Christians and those of all faiths and none, have a happy and peaceful Easter.
And Liberal Democrat leader Tim Farron, a Christian, said: "The Easter message is one of internationalism, if you like - Jesus died for you no matter who you are or where you are from. And the Easter message is most definitely not about comfortable nostalgia, it is radical and disturbing.
"People do not traditionally willingly exchange riches, glory and comfort for poverty, shame and pain – but that is what we see in the Easter story."