Attendees at Churchome posted video of the Canadian entertainer singing "Never would have made it" by Marvin Sapp and "To worship you live" by Israel &New Breed.
The 25-year-old also shared his testimony saying: "When you are weak you are strong and there's power in our weakness. It's been hard for to kind of come to terms with that."
It's been reported Bieber regularly attends Churchome, which is led by Pastor Judah Smith.
A day after the service, paparazzi for US entertainment site TMZ followed Bieber leaving a restaurant and asked him if singing at church was more nerve-wrecking than singing at his concerts. He replied "church" and also answered "yes" when asked if he would sing at Kanye West's Sunday Service.
In an emotional Instagram post sharing video clips of him leading worship, Bieber thanked his wife Hailey Bieber for being a "huge support" after revealing he is enduring a "hard season".
He said God was "pulling me through a hard season" and that "having trust in Jesus at your worst times is the absolute hardest".
Bieber, who married model Hailey, 22, last year, added: "I also want to thank my wife for being such a huge support in my life through this season.. it says in the bible count it ALL JOY when you face trials of various kinds. Sounds insane considering when u face trials u feel terrible. "
The Love Yourself singer finished the message by saying: "Whatever pain you are going through just keep telling yourself THIS WONT LAST! Love you guys we in this together."
Hailey commented on the post: "So proud of who u are."
Bieber rose to global stardom after being scouted on YouTube by talent manager Scooter Braun at the age of 13.
His debut EP, My World, arrived in 2009 to international success. His hits include What Do You Mean?, Where Are U Now and Boyfriend.
TMZ asked Beiber if leading worship services will be a norm for him, he said: "No, I like making the music that I'm making, so yeah it's every now and then."
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