Most Rev Justin Welby also said recent deadly shootings at mosques in New Zealand were "monstrous", as he accused the perpetrator(s) of wanting "to create a war against Islam".
Speaking during an interfaith meeting at London Central Mosque, he said: "For British Muslims who are feeling under threat, we are with you.
"Hatred of Muslims denies and blasphemes Christ. Those who co-opt Christian language and history for hatred commit blasphemy."
Fifty people lost their lives when a gunman attacked two mosques in the city of Christchurch on Friday.
A 28-year-old white supremacist, Brenton Harrison Tarrant has been arrested over the deaths. He faces one charge of murder. It is expected more charges will follow.
Archbishop Justin said attacks on Muslims marked an attack on all mankind and he pledged that the Church of England would explore how it can be "more effective in visible signs of togetherness" with Muslims.
He continued: "I commit myself to listening more and putting this higher up the agenda in my own actions and words.
"Jesus taught his followers to be peacemakers, 'for they will be called children of God'.
"Making peace is an action, it doesn't just happen. It requires us to be curious, to listen, to move across differences of culture, ethnicity, religion and politics in love.
"Hate crimes against those who are different have no place before God.
"We stand together for you are us, and we are you, together in the hands of the creator and judge of every person. May God protect and strengthen you."
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